author Alexander Solovyov <piranha@piranha.org.ua>
Wed, 02 Sep 2009 12:50:52 +0300
changeset 80 eacc0c57f0e6
parent 79 cc24c392fd45
child 81 c93635699e2a
permissions -rw-r--r--
Added tag 0.9.8 for changeset cc24c392fd45

# (c) Alexander Solovyov, 2009, under terms of the new BSD License
'''Command line arguments parser

import sys, traceback, getopt, types, textwrap, inspect
from itertools import imap

__all__ = ['command', 'dispatch']
__version__ = '0.9.8'
__author__ = 'Alexander Solovyov'
__email__ = 'piranha@piranha.org.ua'

write = sys.stdout.write
err = sys.stderr.write


# --------
# Public interface
# --------

def command(options=None, usage=None, name=None, shortlist=False, hide=False):
    '''Decorator to mark function to be used for command line processing.

    All arguments are optional:

     - ``options``: options in format described in docs. If not supplied,
       will be determined from function.
     - ``usage``: usage string for function, replaces ``%name`` with name
       of program or subcommand. In case if it's subcommand and ``%name``
       is not present, usage is prepended by ``name``
     - ``name``: used for multiple subcommands. Defaults to wrapped
       function name
     - ``shortlist``: if command should be included in shortlist. Used
       only with multiple subcommands
     - ``hide``: if command should be hidden from help listing. Used only
       with multiple subcommands, overrides ``shortlist``
    def wrapper(func):
        # copy option list
            options_ = list(options or guess_options(func))
        except TypeError:
            # no options supplied and no options present in func
            options_ = []

        name_ = name or func.__name__
        usage_ = usage or guess_usage(func, options_)
        prefix = hide and '~' or (shortlist and '^' or '')
        CMDTABLE[prefix + name_] = (func, options_, usage_)

        def help_func(name=None):
            return help_cmd(func, replace_name(usage_, sysname()), options_)

        def inner(*arguments, **kwarguments):
            # look if we need to add 'help' option
                (True for option in reversed(options_)
                 if option[1] == 'help').next()
            except StopIteration:
                options_.append(('h', 'help', False, 'show help'))

            args = kwarguments.pop('args', None)
            if arguments or kwarguments:
                args, opts = arguments, kwarguments
                args = args or sys.argv[1:]
                    opts, args = catcher(lambda: parse(args, options_),
                except Abort:
                    return -1

                if opts.pop('help', False):
                    return help_func()
                return catcher(lambda: call_cmd(name_, func)(*args, **opts),
            except Abort:
                return -1

        return inner
    return wrapper

def dispatch(args=None, cmdtable=None, globaloptions=None,
             middleware=lambda x: x):
    '''Dispatch command arguments based on subcommands.

    - ``args``: list of arguments, default: ``sys.argv[1:]``
    - ``cmdtable``: dict of commands in format described below.
      If not supplied, will use functions decorated with ``@command``.
    - ``globaloptions``: list of options which are applied to all
      commands, will contain ``--help`` option at least.
    - ``middleware``: global decorator for all commands.

    cmdtable format description::

      {'name': (function, options, usage)}

    - ``name`` is the name used on command-line. Can contain aliases
      (separate them with ``|``), pointer to a fact that this command
      should be displayed in short help (start name with ``^``), or to
      a fact that this command should be hidden (start name with ``~``)
    - ``function`` is the actual callable
    - ``options`` is options list in format described in docs
    - ``usage`` is the short string of usage
    args = args or sys.argv[1:]
    cmdtable = cmdtable or CMDTABLE

    globaloptions = globaloptions or []
    globaloptions.append(('h', 'help', False, 'display help'))

    cmdtable['help'] = (help_(cmdtable, globaloptions), [], '[TOPIC]')
    help_func = cmdtable['help'][0]

        name, func, args, kwargs = catcher(
            lambda: _dispatch(args, cmdtable, globaloptions),
        return catcher(
            lambda: call_cmd(name, middleware(func))(*args, **kwargs),
    except Abort:
        return -1

# --------
# Help
# --------

def help_(cmdtable, globalopts):
    def help_inner(name=None):
        '''Show help for a given help topic or a help overview

        With no arguments, print a list of commands with short help messages.

        Given a command name, print help for that command.
        def helplist():
            hlp = {}
            # determine if any command is marked for shortlist
            shortlist = (name == 'shortlist' and
                         any(imap(lambda x: x.startswith('^'), cmdtable)))

            for cmd, info in cmdtable.items():
                if cmd.startswith('~'):
                    continue # do not display hidden commands
                if shortlist and not cmd.startswith('^'):
                    continue # short help contains only marked commands
                cmd = cmd.lstrip('^~')
                doc = info[0].__doc__ or '(no help text available)'
                hlp[cmd] = doc.splitlines()[0].rstrip()

            hlplist = sorted(hlp)
            maxlen = max(map(len, hlplist))

            write('usage: %s <command> [options]\n' % sysname())
            for cmd in hlplist:
                doc = hlp[cmd]
                if False: # verbose?
                    write(' %s:\n     %s\n' % (cmd.replace('|', ', '), doc))
                    write(' %-*s  %s\n' % (maxlen, cmd.split('|', 1)[0],

        if not cmdtable:
            return err('No commands specified!\n')

        if not name or name == 'shortlist':
            return helplist()

        aliases, (cmd, options, usage) = findcmd(name, cmdtable)
        return help_cmd(cmd,
                        replace_name(usage, sysname() + ' ' + aliases[0]),
                        options + globalopts)
    return help_inner

def help_cmd(func, usage, options):
    '''show help for given command

    - ``func``: function to generate help for (``func.__doc__`` is taken)
    - ``usage``: usage string
    - ``options``: options in usual format

    >>> def test(*args, **opts):
    ...     """that's a test command
    ...        you can do nothing with this command"""
    ...     pass
    >>> opts = [('l', 'listen', 'localhost',
    ...          'ip to listen on'),
    ...         ('p', 'port', 8000,
    ...          'port to listen on'),
    ...         ('d', 'daemonize', False,
    ...          'daemonize process'),
    ...         ('', 'pid-file', '',
    ...          'name of file to write process ID to')]
    >>> help_cmd(test, 'test [-l HOST] [NAME]', opts)
    test [-l HOST] [NAME]
    that's a test command
           you can do nothing with this command
     -l --listen     ip to listen on (default: localhost)
     -p --port       port to listen on (default: 8000)
     -d --daemonize  daemonize process
        --pid-file   name of file to write process ID to
    print '%s\n' % usage
    doc = func.__doc__
    if not doc:
        doc = '(no help text available)'
    print '%s\n' % doc.strip()
    if options:
        print ''.join(help_options(options))

def help_options(options):
    yield 'options:\n\n'
    output = []
    for short, name, default, desc in options:
        default = default and ' (default: %s)' % default or ''
        output.append(('%2s%s' % (short and '-%s' % short,
                                  name and ' --%s' % name),
                       '%s%s' % (desc, default)))

    opts_len = max([len(first) for first, second in output if second] or [0])
    for first, second in output:
        if second:
            # wrap description at 78 chars
            second = textwrap.wrap(second, width=(78 - opts_len - 3))
            pad = '\n' + ' ' * (opts_len + 3)
            yield ' %-*s  %s\n' % (opts_len, first, pad.join(second))
            yield '%s\n' % first

# --------
# Options parsing
# --------

def parse(args, options):
    >>> opts = [('l', 'listen', 'localhost',
    ...          'ip to listen on'),
    ...         ('p', 'port', 8000,
    ...          'port to listen on'),
    ...         ('d', 'daemonize', False,
    ...          'daemonize process'),
    ...         ('', 'pid-file', '',
    ...          'name of file to write process ID to')]
    >>> print parse(['-l', '', '--pi', 'test', 'all'], opts)
    ({'pid_file': 'test', 'daemonize': False, 'port': 8000, 'listen': ''}, ['all'])

    argmap, defmap, state = {}, {}, {}
    shortlist, namelist = '', []

    for short, name, default, comment in options:
        if short and len(short) != 1:
            raise FOError('Short option should be only a single'
                          ' character: %s' % short)
        if not name:
            raise FOError(
                'Long name should be defined for every option')
        # change name to match Python styling
        pyname = name.replace('-', '_')
        argmap['-' + short] = argmap['--' + name] = pyname
        defmap[pyname] = default

        # copy defaults to state
        if isinstance(default, list):
            state[pyname] = default[:]
        elif callable(default):
            state[pyname] = None
            state[pyname] = default

        # getopt wants indication that it takes a parameter
        if not (default is None or default is True or default is False):
            if short: short += ':'
            if name: name += '='
        if short:
            shortlist += short
        if name:

    opts, args = getopt.gnu_getopt(args, shortlist, namelist)

    # transfer result to state
    for opt, val in opts:
        name = argmap[opt]
        t = type(defmap[name])
        if t is types.FunctionType:
            state[name] = defmap[name](val)
        elif t is types.IntType:
            state[name] = int(val)
        elif t is types.StringType:
            state[name] = val
        elif t is types.ListType:
        elif t in (types.NoneType, types.BooleanType):
            state[name] = not defmap[name]

    return state, args

# --------
# Subcommand system
# --------

def _dispatch(args, cmdtable, globalopts):
    cmd, func, args, options, globaloptions = cmdparse(args, cmdtable,

    if globaloptions['help']:
        return 'help', cmdtable['help'][0], [cmd], {}
    elif not cmd:
        return 'help', cmdtable['help'][0], ['shortlist'], {}

    return cmd, func, args, options

def cmdparse(args, cmdtable, globalopts):
    # command is the first non-option
    cmd = None
    for arg in args:
        if not arg.startswith('-'):
            cmd = arg

    if cmd:

        aliases, info = findcmd(cmd, cmdtable)
        cmd = aliases[0]
        possibleopts = list(info[1])
        possibleopts = []


        options, args = parse(args, possibleopts)
    except getopt.GetoptError, e:
        raise ParseError(cmd, e)

    globaloptions = {}
    for o in globalopts:
        name = o[1]
        globaloptions[name] = options.pop(name)

    return (cmd, cmd and info[0] or None, args, options, globaloptions)

def findpossible(cmd, table):
    Return cmd -> (aliases, command table entry)
    for each matching command.
    choice = {}
    for e in table.keys():
        aliases = e.lstrip("^~").split("|")
        found = None
        if cmd in aliases:
            found = cmd
            for a in aliases:
                if a.startswith(cmd):
                    found = a
        if found is not None:
            choice[found] = (aliases, table[e])

    return choice

def findcmd(cmd, table):
    """Return (aliases, command table entry) for command string."""
    choice = findpossible(cmd, table)

    if cmd in choice:
        return choice[cmd]

    if len(choice) > 1:
        clist = choice.keys()
        raise AmbiguousCommand(cmd, clist)

    if choice:
        return choice.values()[0]

    raise UnknownCommand(cmd)

# --------
# Helpers
# --------

def guess_options(func):
    args, varargs, varkw, defaults = inspect.getargspec(func)
    for lname, (sname, default, hlp) in zip(args[-len(defaults):], defaults):
        yield (sname, lname.replace('_', '-'), default, hlp)

def guess_usage(func, options):
    usage = '%name '
    if options:
        usage += '[OPTIONS] '
    args, varargs = inspect.getargspec(func)[:2]
    argnum = len(args) - len(options)
    if argnum > 0:
        usage += args[0].upper()
        if argnum > 1:
            usage += 'S'
    elif varargs:
        usage += '[%s]' % varargs.upper()
    return usage

def catcher(target, help_func):
        return target()
    except UnknownCommand, e:
        err("unknown command: '%s'\n" % e)
    except AmbiguousCommand, e:
        err("command '%s' is ambiguous:\n    %s\n" %
            (e.args[0], ' '.join(e.args[1])))
    except ParseError, e:
        err('%s: %s\n' % (e.args[0], e.args[1]))
    except getopt.GetoptError, e:
        err('error: %s\n' % e)
    except FOError, e:
        err('%s\n' % e)
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
    except SystemExit:
        err('unknown exception encountered')

    raise Abort

def call_cmd(name, func):
    def inner(*args, **kwargs):
            return func(*args, **kwargs)
        except TypeError:
            if len(traceback.extract_tb(sys.exc_info()[2])) == 1:
                raise ParseError(name, "invalid arguments")
    return inner

def replace_name(usage, name):
    if '%name' in usage:
        return usage.replace('%name', name, 1)
    return name + ' ' + usage

def sysname():
    name = sys.argv[0]
    if name.startswith('./'):
        return name[2:]
    return name

    from functools import wraps
except ImportError:
    def wraps(wrapped, assigned=('__module__', '__name__', '__doc__'),
        def inner(wrapper):
            for attr in assigned:
                setattr(wrapper, attr, getattr(wrapped, attr))
            for attr in updated:
                getattr(wrapper, attr).update(getattr(wrapped, attr, {}))
            return wrapper
        return inner

# --------
# Exceptions
# --------

# Command exceptions
class CommandException(Exception):
    'Base class for command exceptions'

class AmbiguousCommand(CommandException):
    'Raised if command is ambiguous'

class UnknownCommand(CommandException):
    'Raised if command is unknown'

class ParseError(CommandException):
    'Raised on error in command line parsing'

class Abort(CommandException):
    'Abort execution'

class FOError(CommandException):
    'Raised on trouble with opster configuration'